PSYCHOLOGY

- “It is commonly assumed that female role models improve women’s beliefs that they can

be successful in STEM” (Cheryan and al., 2011).

- “Role models are often promoted as influential sources of advice and information about

various career possibilities. They may come in the shape of likeable tutors from university

mathematics departments, enthusiastic and knowledgeable media commentators on

STEM issues or fictional forensic crime experts in TV shows”, “(…) role models (…) help

students picture themselves in STEM careers. Role models may also help in reducing

another cost identified in the literature: the geek label and other negative characteristics

associated with students choosing STEM” (Bøe and al., 2011).

- “Role models are defined by their ability to inspire, to serve as figures that others look to

in the hope of achieving similar success. To be inspiring, however, the role model’s

success must seem plausible and attainable” (Betz, 2013).

- “Science teachers began to include career awareness as part of the curriculum to assist

in building role models that are connected to the content. An example of this would be to

have female guest speakers”, (Koch and Wardjiman, 2011).

- Moreover various academic research reveals that “contact with same-sex experts

(advanced peers, professionals, professors) in environments involving science,

technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) enhances women’s self-concept in

STEM, attitudes toward STEM, and motivation to pursue STEM careers. Two crosssectional

controlled experiments and 1 longitudinal naturalistic study in a calculus class

revealed that exposure to female STEM experts promoted positive implicit attitudes and

stronger implicit identification with STEM (Studies 1-3), greater self-efficacy in STEM

(Study 3), and more effort on STEM tests (Study 1) “ (Stout, Dasgupta, Hunsinger;

McManus (2011). STEMing the tide: Using ingroup experts to inoculate women’s selfconcept

in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 100(2), 255-270)

- “There are many possible factors contributing to the discrepancy of women and men in

STEM jobs, including: a lack of female role models, gender stereotyping, and less familyfriendly

flexibility in the STEM fields.” (Beede, Julian, Langdon, McKittrick, Khan, Doms

(2011). Women in STEM: A Gender Gap to Innovation; Economics and Statistics

Administration Issue Brief 04-11)

Unconscious biases are social stereotypes about certain groups of people that individuals

from outside their own conscious awareness. Everyone holds unconscious beliefs about various

social and identity groups, and these biases stem from one’s tendency to organize social worlds

by categorizing.

Unconscious bias is far more prevalent than conscious prejudice and often incompatible with

one’s conscious values. Certain scenarios can activate unconscious attitudes and beliefs. For

example, biases may be more prevalent when multitasking or working under time pressure

Also known as implicit social cognition, implicit bias refers to the attitudes or stereotypes that

affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner. These biases,

which encompass both favorable and unfavorable assessments, are activated involuntarily and

without an individual’s awareness or intentional control. Residing deep in the subconscious,

these biases are different from known biases that individuals may choose to conceal for the

purposes of social and/or political correctness. Rather, implicit biases are not accessible

through introspection.

GENDER

Gender stereotypes are preconceived ideas whereby females and males are arbitrarily assigned characteristics and roles determined and limited by their gender. Gender stereotyping can limit the development of the natural talents and abilities of girls and boys, women and men, as well as their educational and professional experiences and life opportunities in general. Stereotypes about women both result from, and are the cause of, deeply engrained attitudes, values, norms and prejudices against women. They are used to justify and maintain the historical relations of power of men over women as well as sexist attitudes that hold back the advancement of women. (EIGE) 

Term definition: “the belief that women should be allowed the same rights, power, and

opportunities as men and be treated in the same way, or the set of activities intended to achieve

this state” (retrieved from dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/feminism , January

2018)

A political stance and commitment to change the political position of women and promote

gender equality, based on the thesis that women are subjugated because of their gendered

body, i.e. sex. All feminisms agree that women are in the subordinated position in relation to

men. Besides three waves of feminism and post-feminism, there are several feminist currents

and orientations, e.g. Marxist feminists, liberal feminists, cyber feminists, lesbian feminists,

radical feminism, feminism & psychoanalysis, etc.

Contemporary feminisms’ main focus is either a re-evaluation and reconceptualisation of

women, their positions and roles, or a deconstruction of covert forms of gender discrimination

and exclusion.

Gender awareness is the ability to view society from the perspective of gender roles and

understand how this has affected women’s needs in comparison to the needs of men.

Gender sensitivity refers to the aim of understanding and taking account of the societal and

cultural factors involved in gender-based exclusion and discrimination in the most diverse spheres

of public and private life. It focuses mainly on instances of structural disadvantage in the positions

and roles of women.

The gap in any area between women and men in terms of their levels of participation, access,

rights, remuneration or benefits.

Gender equality refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men

and girls and boys. Equality does not mean that women and men will become the same but that

women’s and men’s rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they

are born female or male. Gender equality implies that the interests, needs and priorities of both

women and men are taken into consideration, thereby recognising the diversity of different

groups of women and men. Gender equality is not a women’s issue but should concern and fully

engage men as well as women. Equality between women and men is seen both as a human

rights issue and as a precondition for, and indicator of, sustainable people-centred

development.

Though often used interchangeably, equality and equity are two very distinct concepts. Gender

equity entails the provision of fairness and justice in the distribution of benefits and

responsibilities between women and men. The concept recognises that women and men have

different needs and power and that these differences should be identified and addressed in a

manner that rectifies the imbalances between the sexes. This may include equal treatment, or

treatment that is different but considered equivalent in terms of rights, benefits, obligations and

opportunities.

While international human rights treaties refer to ‘equality’, in other sectors the term ‘equity’ is

often used. The term ‘gender equity’ has sometimes been used in a way that perpetuates

stereotypes about women’s role in society, suggesting that women should be treated ‘fairly’ in

accordance with the roles that they carry out. This understanding risks perpetuating unequal

gender relations and solidifying gender stereotypes that are detrimental to women.

Therefore the term should be used with caution to ensure it is not masking a reluctance to

speak more openly about discrimination and inequality.

The process that aims at showing how existing values and norms influence our picture of reality,

perpetuate stereotypes and support mechanisms (re)producing inequality. It challenges values and gender norms by explaining how they influence and limit opinions taken into consideration

and decision-making. In addition, awareness raising aims at stimulating a general sensitivity to

gender issues.

Prejudiced actions or thoughts based on the gender-based perception that women are not equal

to men in rights and dignity.

The systematic consideration of the differences between the conditions, situations and needs of

women and men in all policies and actions.

Gender mainstreaming is the (re)organisation, improvement, development and evaluation of

policy processes, so that a gender equality perspective is incorporated into all policies at all

levels and all stages, by the actors normally involved in policymaking.

Mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and

men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all

levels. It is a way to make women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral

dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes

in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally, and

inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality.

Gender mainstreaming is a complementary strategy and not a substitute for targeted, womencentred

policies and programmes, gender equality legislation, institutional mechanisms for

gender equality, and specific interventions that aim to close the gender gap.

Gender budgeting is the application of gender mainstreaming in the budgetary process. It

entails a gender-based assessment of budgets, incorporating a gender perspective at all levels

of the budgetary process, and restructuring revenues and expenditures in order to promote

gender equality.

The process, strategy and myriad efforts by which women have been striving to liberate

themselves from the authority and control of men and traditional power structures, as well as to

secure equal rights for women, remove gender discrimination from laws, institutions and

behavioural patterns, and set legal standards that shall promote their full equality with men.

EDUCATION

STEM is an acronym for science, Technology, engineering and mathematics, commonly used in

relation to education and skills. While STEM skills are becoming increasingly important for every

type of job there are a number of sectors where STEM skills are integral, including aerospace,

advanced manufacturing and digital. There are huge range of STEM occupations, including

computer, scientists, network and computer systems administrators, database administrators,

nuclear technicians, engineers, material scientists, microbiologists, biochemists, and many

others.

The concept of STEM is defined from three perspectives: STEM field, STEM stream and STEM

approach. STEM as a field covers traditional disciplines such as Medicine, Engineering,

Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics and Statistics, as well as the more specialized disciplines such

as Astrophysics, Biochemistry and Genetic Engineering. STEM Stream refers to enrolling of

students in upper secondary school to a stream of their choice and inclination. STEM approach

refers to a pedagogical strategy that emphasizes application of knowledge, skills and values from

the disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, in an integrated manner

to help students solve problems encountered in the real world.

Compléter avec le framework pour l'enseignement. 

The study or use of systems (especially computers and telecommunications) for storing,

retrieving, and sending information.

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