The five teaching practices of the Gender4STEM project - teaching preparation, teaching, assessment, counselling and awareness raising target secondary-level teachers (especially in STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics), school psychologists, educational counsellors and career advisors, head teachers…
- TEACHING PREPARATION: Teaching preparation refers to practices dedicated to gender-fairly plan and prepare STEM (or not STEM) lessons, from arranging the necessary pedagogical materials and furniture, to designing instructions and student assessments, including developing student-specific teaching strategies.
- TEACHING: Teaching refers to practices dedicated to gender-fair interactions in the classroom, from teacher interactions with students, to student interactions with one another and the environment.
- ASSESSMENT: Assessment refers to practices dedicated to gender-fair teaching evaluation, from student evaluation by teachers, to teacher self-reflection, contributing to improving STEM (or not STEM) teaching practices and student growth.
- COUNSELLING: Counselling refers to practices dedicated to supporting students in the development of their curriculum in a gender-fair way, from understanding the context and goals of the students, to advising on personal and school-related problems, including informing them about STEM (or not STEM) education and career options.
- AWARENESS RAISING: Awareness-raising refers to practices dedicated to raising awareness on gender stereotypes and biases in STEM (or not) education among students and the professional community.
The five teaching practices are based on the referenced teaching framework.
According to ESCO (European Skills, Competences, Qualifications and Occupations), the European multilingual classification of Skills, Competences, Qualifications and Occupations
- Secondary school teachers prepare lesson plans and materials, monitor the students' progress, assist individually when necessary, and evaluate the students’ knowledge and performance through assignments, tests and examinations.
- Educational counsellors may provide advice on personal problems such as social integration and behavioural issues and on schoolrelated matters such as devising adequate curriculum schedules, discussing test scores, and informing students of further education options.
- Career guidance advisors help identify options for future careers, assist beneficiaries in the development of their curriculum and help people reflect on their ambitions, interests and qualifications
Jackson (1968) classifies teachers’ activities into three phases:
- Pre-active phase refers to the preparation of teaching and includes preparing lesson plans, arranging furniture and equipment within the classroom, operating papers, studying test reports, reading sections of a textbook, etc.
- Interactive phase of teaching refers to classroom teaching and includes all the behaviour and activities of a teacher after he/she enters the classroom. The teacher provides various kinds of verbal stimulation for pupils, e.g. “gives explanations, asks questions, listens to student responses and provides guidance”.
- Post-active phase of teaching, also known as the evaluation stage, provides necessary feedback to the teacher and student to bring the desirable improvement in their performance.
In addition, Danielson (2013) refers to a dedicated domain to “Professional Responsibilities” which consists of a wide range of professional responsibilities, from self-reflection and professional growth, to participation in a professional community, to contributions made to the profession as a whole. It also includes interactions with the families of students, contacts with the larger community and advocacy for students.
 Philip Jackson (1968), Life in Classrooms, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc.